Saturday, June 28, 2008

Solihull hospital

echocardiagram, Solihull,maplins and the ironmongers - a set on Flickr


Murmurs of the heart - description of heart murmurs | Health News | Find Articles at BNET: "There are several tests for verifying the presence of a heart murmur and its type. Initial testing is with the stethoscope to monitor heart sounds. Echocardiograms may be ordered following a physician's initial diagnosis. An echocardiogram, which takes about half an hour, is a completely painless, safe and non-invasive test. Using ultrasound and sometimes special Doppler microphones, it provides a detailed visual, two dimensional image of the heart in action, giving an accurate picture of the four cardiac valves as they open and close. Generally, people whose echocardiograms reveal heart valve malfunction go on for further investigation."


heart valves - Google Search

Progressive Mitral Valve Thickening and Progressive Muscle Cramps as Manifestations of Glycogenosis VII (Tarui’s Disease): "Valve thickening may consecutively lead to valve insufficiency, enlargement of the atrium and atrial fibrillation. Progression of neurological manifestations may manifest as worsening muscle cramps."

Murmurs of the heart - description of heart murmurs | Health News | Find Articles at BNET: "Heart or cardiac murmurs are prolonged vibrations between the normal heart sounds, heard when listening to the heart through a stethoscope, audible as a 'whoosh' or burning different from the normal 'lub-dub' of the heart beat. Heart murmurs are often harmless or innocent due to slight irregularities in the normal flow of blood through the cardiac valves. They may be detected in as many as half the children seen in a busy family physician's or pediatrician's office. Heart murmurs are also increasingly diagnosed in otherwise healthy young adults, especially women. An estimated one in 20 people has some kind of heart murmur, frequently of no consequence."


Thursday, June 26, 2008

antecoagulant therapy

Monday, June 23, 2008

Freesat card from Sky

Satellite Shop, Satshop, Freesat, Freesat card,Satellite receivers, satellite dishes, Sky plus, Kent, cards,card,sky,digibox,lnb,dishes,satelite,satalite,saterlite,topfiled,technomate: "Freesat from Sky gives access to a choice of some fantastic TV andradio programmes on offer in the UK in crystal clear digital quality. Choosefrom entertainment, shopping, sport and music to special interest and currentaffairs. There's something for everyone including the kids. With freesat fromSky, you've got a world of entertainment at your fingertips."
or phone 0844 8244 4000

Freesat Channel List


* BBC1
* BBC2
* ITV1
* ITV2
* ITV3
* ITV4
* C4
* five
* Audi Channel
* BEN TV 2
* Big Game TV
* Bonanza
* Channel M
* Five Life
* Five US
* Game Network
* Get Lucky TV
* Hollywood TV
* Information TV
* Jackpot TV
* L!ve TV
* Life One
* Life Showcase
* Life TV
* Live 2
* Majestic TV
* O’Seasproperty
* Open Access
* Open Access 2
* Performance

DSC07414 with Beethoven on the performance channel

* Poker Channel
* Real Estate TV
* Real Estate + 1
* Reality TV
* Reality TV +1
* Simply TV
* Smart Live
* Solent TV
* Sky Three
* S4C Digidol
* S4C 2
* Travel Channel
* Travel Ch 2
* TTV2
* Turn On TV
* Wedding TV
* Wine TV
* Yooplay TV
* You TV
* You TV2

News and Docs

* Sky News
* BBC Parliament
* CCTV-9
* Community Chnl
* DD-News
* EuroNews
* France 24


* CBBC Channel
* CBeebies
* Tiny POP
* Tiny POP +1


* B4
* B4U Music
* Bubble Hits
* Channel U
* Chartshow TV
* Classic FM TV
* Fizz
* MusFlashTV
* Musicians Chnl
* R Music tv
* The Vault
* Zee Music


* Golf Channel


* Bad Movies
* Eat Cinema
* Film4
* HorrorChannel
* Matinee Movies
* True Movies

Special Interest

* 2ShopTV
* Aapna Channel
* Al Jazeera Eng
* Apna Bazaar
* ARY Oneworld
* ATN Global
* Baby Channel
* Bangla TV
* Best Direct
* Best Direct+
* Bid TV
* Broadband UK
* Channel 'S'
* Channel S NTV
* Chat Box
* ChoicesUK TV
* Christmas Shop
* Create & Craft
* Cyprus Direct
* Dating Channel
* DD-India
* DM digital
* DM Gold
* Dove Vision TV
* EeZee
* Fashion Tv
* Gay Date TV
* Gay Network
* 2
* GOD 2
* GOD Channel
* Golf Pro-Shop
* Horse and Country
* iBuy TV
* iBuy tv 2
* Ideal World
* Islam Channel
* Living in Spain
* Look4Love TV
* Loveworld TV
* Lucky Star
* Majestic TV
* MATV NAtional
* Max
* Max TV
* Men and Motors
* Passion TV
* PCNE Chinese
* Playboy One
* Pitch TV
* Poker Channel
* Price Crash 2
* PTV Global
* Quiz Nation
* Quiz TV
* Raj TV
* Record TV
* Revelation
* Sahara One
* Shop on TV
* Shop Vector
* Simply Ideas
* Simply Shop
* Speedaucion TV
* Superstore TV
* Star Bazaar
* Stop + Shop
* TBN Europe
* Teachers' TV
* Tel Sell
* Teletext hols
* Thane Direct
* Thomas Cook
* Thomson TV
* TV Warehouse
* TVW Select
* Vector 24/7
* Vegas 24/7
* Vitality
* We Deliver TV
* Wonderful
* Word Network
* Your TV

Saturday, June 21, 2008

Science of Happiness

TIME Magazine: Happiness The New Science of Happiness -- January 17, 2005: "WHAT MAKES US HAPPY

So, what has science learned about what makes the human heart sing? More than one might imagine ? along with some surprising things about what doesn't ring our inner chimes. Take wealth, for instance, and all the delightful things that money can buy. Research by Diener, among others, has shown that once your basic needs are met, additional income does little to raise your sense of satisfaction with life (see story on page A32). A good education? Sorry, Mom and Dad, neither education nor, for that matter, a high IQ paves the road to happiness. Youth? No, again. In fact, older people are more consistently satisfied with their lives than the young. And they're less prone to dark moods: a recent survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that people ages 20 to 24 are sad for an average of 3.4 days a month, as opposed to just 2.3 days for people ages 65 to 74. Marriage? A complicated picture: married people are generally happier than singles, but that may be because they were happier to begin with (see page A37). Sunny days? Nope, although a 1998 study showed that Midwesterners think folks living in balmy California are happier and that Californians incorrectly believe this about themselves too."

happiness set point site:edu genetic - Google Search

happiness set point genetic - Google Search

Psychology at eh University of Edinburgh - Literature review topics:

"2. Critically review the evidence on the ideas of subjective well-being (happiness) as having a set point from which our experience can moved only briefly.

Starting References;-

1. Lucas, R. E. (2007). Adaptation and the Set-Point Model of Subjective Well-Being: Does Happiness Change After Major Life Events? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(2), 75-79.

2. Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., & Scollon, C. N. (2006). Beyond the hedonic treadmill - Revising the adaptation theory of well-being. American Psychologist, 61(4), 305-314.

3. Lucas, A. (2005). The developmental origins of adult health and well-being. Adv Exp Med Biol, 569, 13-15.

4. Lucas, R. E. (2007). Long-term disability is associated with lasting changes in subjective well-being: evidence from two nationally representative longitudinal studies. J Pers Soc Psychol, 92(4), 717-730.

5. Lyubomirsky on Lasting Change"

Wednesday, June 18, 2008

Warfarin News

Warfarin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: "Because of warfarin's poorly-predictable pharmacokinetics, several researchers have proposed algorithms for commencing warfarin treatment:

* The Kovacs 10 mg algorithm was better than a 5 mg algorithm.[33]
* The Fennerty 10 mg regimen is for urgent anticoagulation[34]
* The Tait 5 mg regimen is for 'routine' (low-risk) anticoagulation[35]
* From a cohort of orthopedic patients, Millican et al derived an 8-value model, including CYP29C and VKORC1 genotype results, that could predict 80% of the variation in warfarin doses. It is awaiting validation in larger populations and has not been reproduced in those who require warfarin for other indications.[36]"


News: "The CoaguNation Bus Tour provides an excellent opportunity for warfarin patients across the UK and Ireland to learn about the potential benefits of self testing, and to speak to other self testing patients from AntiCoagulation Europe about the positive impact it can have on their lives”.

Gloucester - Kings Square 20 June 9 am to 5 pm
21 June 9 am to 5 pm"

We motivate patients to take control of their own oral anticoagulation therapy

More than 1,000,000 patients in United Kingdom are living on long-term oral anticoagulation.
ISMAAP activities are focussed around these patients to offer them a better quality of life.

At the conference we launched the Campaign Resource pack for people unable to obtain their testing strips on prescription in the UK.


Warfarin can be reversed with vitamin K, or for rapid reversal (e.g. in case of severe bleeding), with prothrombin complex concentrate (containing only the factors inhibited by warfarin) or fresh frozen plasma depending upon the clinical indication.

Details on reversing warfarin are provided in clinical practice guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians.[26] For patients with an international normalized ratio (INR) between 4.5 and 10.0, 1 mg of oral vitamin K is effective.[27]

Warfarin necrosis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: "Warfarin necrosis is acquired protein C deficiency due to treatment with the vitamin K inhibitor anticoagulant warfarin. It is a feared (but rare) complication of warfarin treatment. This rare reaction occurs usually between the third and tenth days of therapy with warfarin derivatives, usually in women. Lesions are sharply demarcated, erythematous, indurated, and purpuric and may resolve or progress to form large, irregular, hemorrhagic bullae with eventual necrosis and slow-healing eschar formation. Development of the syndrome is unrelated to drug dose or underlying condition. Favored sites are breasts, thighs, and buttocks. The course is not altered by discontinuation of the drug after onset of the eruption. In initial stages of action, inhibition of protein C may be stronger than inhibition of the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (II, VII, IX and X), leading to paradoxical activation of coagulation and necrosis of skin areas. It occurs mainly in patients with a deficiency of protein C. Protein C is an innate anticoagulant, and as warfarin further decreases protein C levels by inhibiting vitamin K, it can lead to massive thrombosis with necrosis and gangrene of limbs."

warfarin - Google Search
Vitamin K and warfarin medication: "Anybody beginning a course of warfarin medicine is advised to keep the vitamin K content of their diet constant. If the warfarin dose is established with a constant level of vitamin K intake the INR will not be affected. Problems may arise when vitamin K intakes are varied. If a patient suddenly lowers their vitamin K intake, the INR will increase, and if a patient increases their vitamin K intake the INR will decrease."

Warfarin versus aspirin for prevention of thromboe...[Lancet. 1994] - PubMed Result: "The primary event rate per year was 3.6% with warfarin and 4.8% with aspirin (RR 0.73, p = 0.39). In this older group, the rate of all stroke with residual deficit (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) was 4.3% per year with aspirin and 4.6% per year with warfarin (RR 1.1). Warfarin may be more effective than aspirin for prevention of ischaemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, but the absolute reduction in stroke rate by warfarin is small. Younger patients without risk factors had a low rate of stroke when treated with aspirin. In older patients the rate of stroke (ischaemic and haemorrhagic) was substantial, irrespective of which agent was given. Patient age and the inherent risk of thromboembolism should be considered in the choice of antithrombotic prophylaxis for patients with atrial fibrillation."
Adjusted-dose warfarin versus low-intensity, fixed...[Lancet. 1996] - PubMed Result: "The annual rates of disabling stroke (5.6% vs 1.7%, p = 0.0007) and of primary event or vascular death (11.8% vs 6.4%, p = 0.002), were also higher with combination therapy. The rates of major bleeding were similar in both treatment groups. INTERPRETATION: Low-intensity, fixed-dose warfarin plus aspirin in this regimen is insufficient for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular AF at high-risk for thromboembolism; adjusted-dose warfarin (target INR 2.0-3.0) importantly reduces stroke for high-risk patients."

Aspirin is Safer than Warfarin and Just as Effective for Treating Blocked Arteries in the Brain: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS): "In the new study, called the Warfarin Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) trial, investigators at 59 medical centers across the United States, led by Marc I. Chimowitz, M.D., of Emory University in Atlanta, compared warfarin to 1300 milligrams (mg) per day of aspirin in a total of 569 patients for an average of 1.8 years. All of the patients had a greater than 50 percent blockage of a major intracranial artery and had experienced a TIA or non-disabling stroke within the 90 days prior to their enrollment in the study.

The investigators found that about 22 percent of the patients had a subsequent ischemic stroke (caused by blockage of an artery), brain hemorrhage, or death from other blood vessel-related causes, regardless of whether they received aspirin or warfarin. However, the rates of major hemorrhage and death from all causes were significantly higher in the patients treated with warfarin (event rates for aspirin compared to warfarin, respectively, were 3.2 percent vs. 8.3 percent for major hemorrhage and 4.3 percent vs. 9.7 percent for death). Enrollment in the study was terminated earlier than originally planned on the recommendation of an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board because of concern for the safety of the patients given warfarin.

Since warfarin treatment is a more expensive and complicated therapy than aspirin, not using warfarin and preventing the bleeding complications associated with it would save more than $20 million per year in the United States, Dr. Chimowitz estimates.

"The results of this study are only relevant to people with intracranial stenosis," Dr. Chimowitz notes. People who are receiving warfarin for other conditions, such as an irregular heart rhythm (called atrial fibrillation) or clots in the legs or lung, should not stop taking the drug, as studies have found that it is the best option in those conditions, he cautions.

The dose of aspirin used in this study – 1300 mg – is much higher than the daily doses typically prescribed, which range from 81 to 325 mg. While there is some concern that doses of 1300 mg aspirin may increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, the investigators chose this dose because it was the only amount for which earlier studies had provided good preliminary data. "This is the only dose we know is as effective as warfarin for this disease, since it was the only dose studied. We just don't know how other doses of aspirin would stack up," says Dr. Chimowitz. The major bleeding risk on high dose aspirin in WASID was similar to the major bleeding risk in other stroke trials that have evaluated lower doses of aspirin (e.g. 325 mg per day), he adds. Most experts believe there are no advantages to aspirin doses greater than 325 mg for stroke prevention, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved dose of aspirin for prevention of vascular events is 50-325 mg. Patients should consult their physicians before beginning any long-term or high-dose aspirin treatment regimen.

Even with treatment, the rates of ischemic stroke in this clinical trial were substantially higher than in stroke prevention trials that have evaluated aspirin and warfarin in patients with other causes of stroke. This underscores that patients with intracranial stenosis are at particularly high risk for stroke and that better therapies are needed, the investigators note.

Warfarin Diet: "7. Be aware of foods which are known to be high in vitamin K content. As a general rule, these include most dark green vegetables. Foods highest in vitamin K are brussels sprouts, spinach, broccoli, kale, cabbage, parsley and avocado. It is important to include these foods in your diet, but try to keep your intake of them consistent from week to week. If your diet changes significantly for more than a few days, either through choice or illness, inform your health care professional. Foods highest in vitamin K are:

Food vitamin k micrograms
Kale (1 cup, raw) 540
Swiss chard (1 cup, raw) 500
Collard greens (1/2 cup, cooked) 440
Spinach (1/2 cup, cooked) 360
Brussels sprouts (5) 289
Watercress (3 cups, raw) 250
Endive (2 cups, raw, chopped) 231
Scallion (2/3 cup, raw, chopped) 207
Broccoli (1/2 cup, cooked) 113
Coleslaw with dressing (3/4 cup) 100
Cabbage (2/3 cup, cooked) 98
Asparagus (7 spears, cooked) 80"

Warfarin Guidelines CPG: "Guidelines

* Most patients require 3-5 days of warfarin before achieving a stable maintenance phase.

* If the patient is receiving TPN, removal of Vitamin K from nutrient solution may be necessary."


I am starting with 3mg at 6:00 pm today

warfarin initial loading - Google Search

We have been working with the National Patient Safety Agency on issuing new guidance to help limit the number of adverse events and death from taking vitamin K antagonists

Actions that can make anticoagulant therapy safer: "Anticoagulants are one of the classes of medicines most frequently identified as causing preventable harms and admissions to hospitals. The NPSA has produced the following patient safety alert and support materials to help manage the risks associated with anticoagulants and reduce the risks of patients being harmed in the future."


Thursday, June 12, 2008


Atrial Fibrillation - FAQs: "'Can I exercise if I have Atrial Fibrillation? Should I exercise? Should I cool my sex life?'
It's really a judgment call for you and your doctor whether or not you should exercise. In A-Fib when you first start exercising, your heart rate tends to be very rapid. Also, the A-Fib reduces your overall capacity to exercise, because your heart isn't pumping properly.25
These observations aside, if you can exercise without your heart rate becoming too rapid and you feel like exercising, you probably should. (In some types of A-Fib, moderate exercise may actually help you come out of an attack of A-Fib.)
If you want to monitor your heart rate while you exercise, you can wear a heart rate monitor (such as the Polar Heart Rate Monitor available in sporting goods stores. Nike and Garmin also make heart rate monitors). It straps around your chest and transmits your heart rate to a watch you wear. You can set it to sound an alarm if your pulse exceeds a certain rate.
You don't have to worry about dying while making love. Episodes of A-Fib are normally not life threatening."

"Are there exercises that will help eliminate my Atrial Fibrillation?"
No. Our current knowledge of A-Fib hasn't identified any exercises that would help eliminate your A-Fib. (Some people say they can come out of an A-Fib attack by splashing their face or back with ice water or by bearing down hard using their diaphragm. Others report that hard exercise can often get them out of an A-Fib attack.)

so I am going to wait awhile before getting busy

Atrial fibrillation: Causes

Atrial fibrillation: Causes - "Serious complications are usually rare in lone atrial fibrillation.
I hope

Possible causes of atrial fibrillation include:

* High blood pressure
* Heart attacks
* Abnormal heart valves
* Congenital heart defects
* An overactive thyroid or other metabolic imbalance
* Exposure to stimulants, such as medications, caffeine or tobacco, or to alcohol ME
* Sick sinus syndrome — this occurs when the heart's natural pacemaker stops functioning properly
* Emphysema or other lung diseases ME
* Previous heart surgery
* Viral infections
* Stress due to pneumonia, surgery or other illnesses
* Sleep apnea" ME :-)

Atrial fibrillation: Screening and diagnosis - "Echocardiogram. In this test, sound waves are used to produce a video image of your heart. Sound waves are directed at your heart from a wand-like device (transducer) that's held on your chest. The sound waves that bounce off your heart are reflected back through your chest wall and processed electronically to provide video images of your heart in motion to detect underlying structural heart disease." NEXT

Atrial fibrillation: Complications - "Most people with atrial fibrillation have a much greater risk of stroke than do those who don't have atrial fibrillation. Medications such as blood thinners can greatly lower your risk of stroke or damage to other organs caused by blood clots."

Atrial fibrillation: Treatment - "Generally, the goals of treating atrial fibrillation are to:

* Reset the rhythm — or — control the rate
* Prevent blood clots"

Postprandial hyperglycemia is a possible contribut...[J Cardiol. 2006] - PubMed Result

Postprandial hyperglycemia is a possible contribut...[J Cardiol. 2006] - PubMed Result: "A 1600 kcal/day diet and walking three times/day for more than 30 min eliminated paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after 6 months. Diet and exercise should be considered as the initial therapy in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who also have postprandial hyperglycemia. This case suggests that postprandial hyperglycemia and insulin resistance might be one of the possible underlying mechanisms of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation."

Monday, June 09, 2008

Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.

Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.: "The Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.
The SCA is an international organization dedicated to researching and re-creating the arts and skills of pre-17th-century Europe. Our 'Known World' consists of 19 kingdoms, with over 30,000 members residing in countries around the world. Members, dressed in clothing of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, attend events which may feature tournaments, arts exhibits, classes, workshops, dancing, feasts, and more. Our 'royalty' hold courts at which they recognize and honor members for their contributions to the group."

Flying Spaghetti Monster - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flying Spaghetti Monster - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: "he Flying Spaghetti Monster (also known as the Spaghedeity) is the deity of a parody religion[1] called The Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster and its system of beliefs, 'Pastafarianism'.[2] The religion was founded in 2005 by Bobby Henderson to protest the decision by the Kansas State Board of Education to require the teaching of intelligent design as an alternative to biological evolution. Because intelligent design implies the existence of an intelligent, but not necessarily omnipotent or omniscient designer, some, like Henderson, argued that this designer could, in fact, be anything imaginable.

In an open letter sent to the education board, Henderson makes a mockery of the concept of an intelligent designer by professing belief in a supernatural creator called the Flying Spaghetti Monster which resembles spaghetti and meatballs.[3] He furthermore calls for the 'Pastafarian' theory of creation to be taught in science classrooms.[4]

Due to its recent popularity and media exposure, the Flying Spaghetti Monster is often used by atheists, agnostics (known by Pastafarians as 'spagnostics'), and others as a modern version of Russell's teapot[5] and the Invisible Pink Unicorn."

Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster

Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster

The Michigan Tech University Pastafarian club has been the victim of harassment even before their first meeting. The MTU Lode reports:

Two individuals are currently undergoing disciplinary procedures through the Dean of Students Office after an investigation by MTU Public Safety determined that they posted a threatening message on the door of the President and Vice President of a recently-formed student organization called the Pastafarian Club.

Some background on the MTU Pastafarian club’s leaders:

According to the president of the Pastafarianism Club, Matt Halberstad–who identifies as agnostic–the group is a parody “religion.” But the group’s purpose isn’t to attack religion, and one would be hard-pressed to find a member of the group who truly believes in their parody deity–the Flying Spaghetti Monster.

The vice president of the Pastafarian Club, Steven Wheeler–who is atheist–believes that Henderson’s argument boils down to the main belief of the Michigan Tech chapter of the Pastafarians: creationism, whether or not one believes in it, is not a science, and should not be taught in a science classroom.

Friday, June 06, 2008

try cardioversion?

Should I try cardioversion for atrial fibrillation? - Yahoo! Health:
"Your choices are:

* Try cardioversion in an attempt to convert to a normal rhythm.
* Do not have cardioversion. Instead, take medications to control your heart rate, and take anticoagulants.

The decision about whether to try cardioversion takes into account your personal feelings and the medical facts."

my electrocardiogram shows AFib

electrocardiogram: Definition and Much More from "The ‘ECG’ (or sometimes still ‘EKG’ in the US, from the German spelling) has become an icon representing the heart's activity. The waveform is the most familiar ‘high tech’ sign of the electrical behaviour of the heart. In various versions, its characteristic shape (see figure) reporting a healthy rhythm, or the flat line suggesting the patient's demise, is familiar to any viewer of television medical soap operas. A clever variation on the theme forms the distinctive logo for the British Heart Foundation, the largest UK charity dedicated to funding cardiovascular research"

DSC04497 6 May 2008

DSC06646 6 June 2008

atrial fibrillation - Google Search

atrial fibrillation site:edu - Google Search: "In atrial fibrillation, the upper part of your heart beats faster than the rest of your heart. The atrial muscles quiver."

Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation: "One of the most important aspects of treating and management of atrial fibrillation is prevention of thromboembolic events. There is a strong association with stroke and atrial fibrillation. A number of studies have demonstrated a significant benefit of warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and other thromboembolic risk factors."

The best method of terminating atrial fibrillation is cardioversion.
Atrial Fibrillation Center of the University of Virginia USA

Thursday, June 05, 2008

mnaging Atrial fibrillation

Guideline 36 Section 3: Atrial fibrillation: Prophylaxis of systemic embolism: "On-treatment analysis showed that aspirin was less effective than warfarin (20% risk reduction vs. 68%);11, 12, 18 however aspirin is simpler, less hazardous and less costly than warfarin"

The annual risk of major bleeding (up to 2% in randomised trials10, 81) should be considered when deciding the level of risk which merits use of warfarin.
(Adapted from the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh Atrial Fibrillation Consensus Statement79)

Atrial Fibrillation - Intute: Health and Life Sciences

Clinical topic - Atrial fibrillation - Clinical Knowledge Summaries